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PARKINAL

Form:
350 mg tablet
Daily intake: 1 tablet with meal, 3 tablets per day

Active ingredients (daily intake):

Grape Seed 7200 mg

   (extract 180 mg, Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins 171 mg);
Gingko Biloba 3480 mg
   (extract 120 mg, Flavone Glycosides 28.8 mg, Triterpenes 7.2 mg)
Coenzyme Q10 300 mg;
Vitamins:
   Niacin (Vitamin B3) 18 mg;
   Pyridoxine Hydrochloride (Vitamin B6) 1.5 mg
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder and is an adult-onset, neurodegenerative disease characterized by tremor at rest, rigidity, and bradykinesia. PD is a neurodegenerative condition, with the most characteristic pathologic feature being a loss of dopamine-containing neurons whose nuclei reside in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra and whose axons terminate in the caudate nucleus and putamen (the striatum). Other pigmented and nonpigmented nuclei in the brainstem and elsewhere are affected as well. Associated with neuronal loss is the development of concentric hyalin inclusions in the cytoplasm of affected neurons called Lewy bodies. Symptoms are believed to be related to the imbalance between dopaminergic and cholinergic influences on striatal tissue created by the loss of dopamine-containing neurons, with proper striatal function depends on this balance. Although parkinsonism may result from substance exposures, infection, and a host of other conditions, idiopathic disease remains the most common form.
PD is an affliction of mid to late adult life, although 30 percent of patients report recognizable symptoms before the age of 50. Another 40 percent develop the disease between ages 50 and 60, and the remainder greater than 60 years old at the time of diagnosis. The classic syndrome of parkinsonism includes tremor at rest, rigidity, bradykinesia, masked face, stooped posture, urinary dysfunction, and a shuffling gait. Although tremor is the most obvious initial finding, it is absent in a small percentage of patients. PD may begin insidiously with vague, aching pain in the limbs, neck, or back and with decreased axial dexterity before tremor is noted. Dysarthria may be an early feature, although dysphagia usually occurs later. Significant orthostatic symptoms may predominate in some patients, with other early subtle symptoms including a decrease in the caliber of handwriting and the volume of voice. Depression is a significant component in many patients and may be a feature of the early disease as well. The estimated frequency of dementia (which usually develops late) varies widely, but at least 15 to 20 percent of patients develop cognitive impairment. However, dementia is not inevitable and remediable causes of mental status changes always need to be sought.


Q10
Coenzyme Q10


Grape Seed



Ginkgo Biloba

VITAMINS
B3, B6

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INGREDIENTS ARE FOUND TO BE BENEFICIAL FOR THE FOLLOWING AILMENTS:

- Parkinson's disease

REPORTED PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS:

COENZYME Q10
Several studies have reported reduced activity of complex I of the electron transport chain in brain and platelets from patients with Parkinsonís disease. Platelets from the mitochondria of patients with Parkinsonís disease were found to have lower levels of coenzyme Q10 when compared with normal controls. CoQ10 also increased the activities of complexes I, II, and III in the electron transport chain within mitochondria.
Coenzyme Q10 may play a role in improving the cellular dysfunction found in Parkinsonís disease and may also provide protection to the dopaminergic neurons, which seem to preferentially become damaged in individuals with this disease.

GRAPE SEED
Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), the active constituent in Grape Seed, is a flavonoid-rich compound which is being described as one of the most potent free radical scavengers
OPCs have been reported to inhibit the release of mediators of inflammation, such as histamine and prostaglandins. Proanthocyanidins are reported to neutralize many free radicals, including hydroxyl, lipid peroxides, and iron-induced lipid peroxidation. They may inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase. OPCs have been used in allergies because of their reported ability to inhibit degradation of mast cells and the subsequent release of histamine and other mediators of inflammation..

GINKGO BILOBA
Ginkgo is the most frequently prescribed medicinal herb in Europe. The most significant benefits are reported in improving circulation in the elderly. This can lead to enhanced memory, delaying the onset of Alzheimer's, and reducing senile dementia, tinnitus, and vertigo.
The main active components of Ginkgo are the flavoglycosides. These compounds act as free radical scavengers or antioxidants. Ginkgo is also reported to inhibit platelet activating factor (PAF) which could reduce the adhesive nature of platelets, possibly through competitive binding. Ginkgo may foster vasodilation by stimulating endothelium releasing factor and prostacyclin. It may also stimulate venous tone and improves the clearance of homotoxins during ischemic episodes. Gingko reportedly acts as a tonic for the circulatory system. It may increase cerebral brain flow, and therefore, improve delivery of nutrients to the brain, enhancing elimination of the byproducts of cell metabolism and oxygenating the tissues. Ginkgo may normalize acetylcholine receptors, and therefore, improve cholinergic function.
VITAMINS
Vitamin B3
In animal studies, benserazide and carbidopa, which are decarboxylase inhibitors used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, have been shown to inhibit the enzyme kynurenine hydrolase. This has the potential to lower the endogenous synthesis of nicotinamide coenzymes from tryptophan, resulting in an increased reliance on dietary Niacin
Vitamin B6
The authors from the previous Niacin study also reported that patients treated with dopa plus a decarboxylase inhibitor, but not those treated with dopa alone, have biochemical markers characteristic of inhibition of the kynurenine pathway, which indicates a deficiency of vitamin B6

RECOMMENDED TO:

- Additional support for people undergoing treatment of Parkinson's disease
- Elder people

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